Can Underutilized Tropical Fruits Meet the Nutritional Requirements of Rural Indonesia?
Keywords:Agroforestry, Food Malnutrition, Kalimantan, Security
Tropical fruits form a potential source of micronutrients. However, a lot of these fruit species remain underutilized in developing countries. This study explores the potential of underutilized tropical fruits in Kalimantan, Indonesia, in meeting the micro-nutrient requirements of its populace. The study employs focus group discussions and a systematic literature search and review process to gather data.79% of the species studied were profuse in at least one essential micronutrient, and 53% of the species contain at least one micronutrient of priority concern in high concentration. No nutritional information was available for 26% of the reviewed species, and 40% of the species for which information is available in the literature lacked data on at least one priority micro-nutrient. Simultaneous fruiting of priority micro-nutrient rich species occurring in the different agroecosystems of Kalimantan, namely limbo gardens, homesteads, and forests, corroborates the importance of landscape diversity in meeting the year-round nutritional needs of its people. Given how the Covid19 pandemic has impacted people's food security, it is essential to address these knowledge gaps to aid the ongoing efforts to reshape our food systems in the future.
Agroforestree Database. (2015). Retrieved August 23, 2015, from World Agroforestry Centre website: http://www.worldagroforestry/
Alders, R., Dar, O., Kock, R., & Rampa, F. (2020). One Health, Zero Hunger. Retrieved April 3, 2021, from Global Hunger Index website: https://www.globalhungerindex.org/ issues-in-focus/2020.html
Archard, F., Eva, H. D., Stibig, H. J., Mayaux, P., Gallego, J., Richards, T., & Malingreau, J. P. (2002). Determination of deforestation rates of the world’s humid tropical forests. Science, 297(5583), 999–1002.
Arifin, H. S., Sardjono, M. A., Sundawati, L., Djogo, T., & dan Widianto, G. A. W. (2003). Lembo: Praktek agroforestri tradisional di Kawansan Sendawar, Kalimantan Timur [Lembo: Tradtional agroforestry practices in Sendawar Zone, East Kalimantan]. In Indonesian Agroforestry (p. 2739). Bogor, Indonesia: ICRAF.
Arnold, M., Powell, B., Shanley, P., & Sunderland, T. (2011). Editorial: Forests, biodiversity, and food security. International Forestry Review, 13(3), 259–264.
Arora, R. K. (2014). Diversity in Underutilized Plant Species - An Asia-Pacific Perspective. New Delhi, India: Biodiversity International.
de Benoist, B., McLean, E., Egli, I., & Cogswell, M. (2008). Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005: WHO global database on anaemia. Geneva, Switzerland. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/43894/9789241596657_eng.pdf
De Silva, I., & Sumarto, S. (2018). Child malnutrition in Indonesia: can education, sanitation and healthcare augment the role of income? Journal of International Development, 30(5), 837–864.
FAO/INFOODS. (2012). FAO/INFOODS Guidelines for Converting Units, Denominators and Expressions, version 1.0. Retrieved September 23, 2015, from Food & Agriculture Organization website: http://www.fao.org/ fileadmin.
Forest, Trees and Food. (1992). Rome, Italy. Retrieved from http://www.fao.org/3/U5620E/ U5620E00.HTM#TopOfPage
Frei, M., & Becker, K. (2004). Agro-biodiversity in subsistence-oriented farming systems in a Philippine upland region: nutritional considerations. Biodiversity & Conservation, 13(8), 1591–1610.
Gaisberger, H., Deletre, M., Gaiji, S., Bordoni, P., Padulosi, S., Hermann, M., & Arnaud, E. (2014). Diversity of neglected and underutilized plant species (NUS) in perspective. Retrieved February 22, 2021, from Biodiversity International website: https://cgspace.cgiar.org/ bitstream/handle/10568/67441/Gaisberger_GBIF Poster_NUS_HD.pdf?sequence=1
Grivetti, L. E., & Ogle, B. M. (2000). Value of traditional foods in meeting macro-and micronutrient needs: the wild plant connection. Nutrition Research Reviews, 13(1), 31.
Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (10. Appendix B: Additional Requirements for Nutrient Content Claims). (2013). Retrieved September 22, 2015, from United States Food and Drug Administration website: http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutritio
Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients). (2013). Retrieved September 22, 2015, from United States Food and Drug Administration website: http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutritio
Heywood, V. H. (2011). Ethnopharmacology, food production, nutrition and biodiversity conservation: towards a sustainable future for indigenous peoples. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 137 (1), 1–15.
Ickowitz, A. (2014). Tree Cover and Nutrition in Indonesia. Presentation for World Congress on Agroforestry. New Delhi, India. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/
Ickowitz, A., Powell, B., Salim, M. A., & Sunderland, T. C. H. (2014). Dietary quality and tree cover in Africa. Global Environmental Change, 24, 287–294.
Indonesia. (2020). Retrieved April 3, 2021, from Global Hunger Index website: https://www.globalhungerindex.org/indonesia.html
Jamnadass, R., McMullin, S., Iiyama, M., & Dawson, I. K. (2015). Understanding the Roles of Forests and Tree-based Systems in Food Provision. In Forests, Trees and Landscapes for Food Security and Nutrition; A Global Assessment Report (IUFRO Worl, pp. 25–48). Vienna, Austria: IUFRO.
Janick, J., & Paull, R. E. (2007). The Encyclopedia of Fruits & Nuts. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
Jati, I. R. A., Vadivel, V., Nöhr, D., & Biesalski, H. K. (2012). Nutrient density score of typical Indonesian foods and dietary formulation using linear programming. Public Health Nutrition, 15(12), 2185–2192.
Jensen, M. (2008). Trees and Fruits of South-East Asia: An Illustrated Field Guide. Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Guides.
Jones, P. J., & Rayment, M. (2016). The role of trees in combatting hidden hunger. Agriculture Development, 28, 9–14.
Kehlenbeck, K., Asaah, E., & Jamnadass, R. (2013). Case study 3: Diversity of indigenous fruit trees and their contribution to nutrition and livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa: examples from Kenya and Cameroon. Diversifying Food and Diets: Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health. In J. Fanzo, D. Hunter, T. Borelli, & F. Mattei (Eds.), Diversifying Food and Diets: Using Agricultural Biodiversity to Improve Nutrition and Health (pp. 257–269). Routledge: UK: Oxon.
Kehlenbeck, K., McMullin, S., Njogu, K., Anjarwalla, P., Karanja-Kamau, E., & Jamnadass, R. (2015). Can cultivation of “fruit tree portfolios” contribute to farmer families’ year-round vitamin supply? Evidence from Eastern Kenya. 2nd Hidden Hunger Conference. Stuttgart, Germany.
Kessler, P. J. A., & Sidiyasa, K. (1997). Trees of the Balikpapan-Samarinda Area, East Kalimantan, Indonesia: a manual to 280 selected species (Tropenbos). Wageningen, Netherlands: The Tropenbos Foundation.
Kessler, P. J. A., Sidiyasa, K., & Zainal, A. (1995). Checklist of Secondary Forest Trees in East and South Kalimantan, Indonesia. Wageningen, Netherlands: The Tropenbos Foundation.
Kueh, H. S. (2003). Indigenous Fruits of Sarawak. Yokohama-City, Japan and Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia: International Tropical Timber Organization & Sarawak Forest Department.
Langner, A., Miettinen, J., & Siegert, F. (2007). Land cover change 2002–2005 in Borneo and the role of fire derived from MODIS imagery. Global Change Biology, 13(11), 2329–2340.
Lim, T. K. (2012a). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Volume 1. Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2012b). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Volume 2. Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2012c). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Volume 3. Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2012d). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Volume 4. Springer.
Lim, T. K. (2012e). Edible medicinal and non-medicinal plants, Volume 6. Springer.
MacKinnon, K., Mangalik, A., & Hatta, G. (1996). The Ecology of Indonesia Series, Volume III: The Ecology of Kalimantan. Jakarta, Indonesia: Periplus Editions.
Margono, B. A., Potapov, P. V., Turubanova, S., Stolle, F., & Hansen, M. C. (2014). Primary forest cover loss in Indonesia over 2000-2012. Nature Climate Change, 4(8), 730–735.
Marjokorpi, A., & Ruokolainen, K. (2003). The role of traditional forest gardens in the conservation of tree species in West Kalimantan, Indonesia. Biodiversity & Conservation, 12 (4), 799–822.
Matius, P., Setiawati, & Pambughi, F. (2014). Petunjuk teknis pembangunan kebun buah-buahan (Lembo) oleh kepala adat. Samarinda, Indonesia: Pusat Pengkajian Perubahan Iklim Universitas Mulawarman.
Mehraban, N., & Ickowitz, A. (2021). Dietary diversity of rural Indonesian households declines over time with agricultural production diversity even as incomes rise. Global Food Security, 28, 100502.
Nakasone, H. Y., & Paull, R. E. (1998). Tropical Fruits. Wallingford, UK: CABI Publishing.
Narendra, B. H., Roshetko, J. M., Tata, H. L., & Mulyoutami, E. (2013). Prioritizing underutilized tree species for domestication in smallholder systems of West Java. Small-Scale Forestry, 12(4), 519–538.
Penafiel, D., Lachat, C., Espinel, R., Van Damme, P., & Kolsteren, P. (2011). A Systematic Review on the Contributions of Edible Plant and Animal Biodiversity to Human Diets. EcoHealth, 8(3), 381–399.
Powell, B., & Ouarghidi, A. (2015). Where the wild vegetables are: Moroccan food from the forest. Retrieved September 25, 2015, from http://blog.cifor.org/26990/where-the-wild-vegetables-are-moroccan-food-from-the-forest?fnl=en
Pullin, A. S., & Stewart, G. B. (2006). Guidelines for Systematic Review in Conservation and Environmental Management. Conservation Biology, 20(6), 1647–1656.
Rowland, D., Blackie, R., Powell, B., Djoudi, H., Vergles, E., Vinceti, B., & Ickowitz, A. (2015). Direct contributions of dry forests to nutrition: a review. International Forestry Review, 17, 45–53.
Sahide, M. A. K., Nurrochmat, D. R., & Giessen, L. (2015). The regime complex for tropical rainforest transformation: analyzing the relevance of multiple global and regional land use regimes in Indonesia. Land Use Policy, 47, 408–425.
Sekiyama, M., Roosita, K., & Ohtsuka, R. (2012). Snack foods consumption contributes to poor nutrition of rural children in West Java. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 21(4), 558–567.
Shrimpton, R., & Rokx, C. (2013). The double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia.
Siregar, M. (2006). Review: Species Diversity of Local Fruit Trees in Kalimantan: Problems of Conservation and Its Development. Biodiversitas, 7(1), 94–99.
Stadlmayr, B., Charrondière, U. R., Eisenwagen, S., Jamnadass, R., & Kehlenbeck, K. (2013). Nutrient composition of selected indigenous fruits from sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93 (11), 2627–2636.
van der Merwe, J. D., Cloete, P. C., & van der Hoeven, M. (2016). Promoting food security through indigenous and traditional food crops. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 40(8), 830–847.
Verheij, E. W. M., & Coronel, R. E. (1991). PROSEA (Plant Resources of South-East Asia) 2: Edible Fruits and Nuts. PudocDLO.
Vermeulen, S., Wellesley, L., Airey, S., Singh, S., Agustina, R., Izwardy, D., & Saminarsih, D. (2019). Healthy diets from sustainable production: Indonesia. Retrieved from https://www.chathamhouse.org/sites/default/files/2020-12/2019-01-24-healthy-diets-sustainable-production.pdf
Vinceti, B., Termote, C., Ickowitz, A., Powell, B., Kehlenbeck, K., & Hunter, D. (2013). The contribution of forests and trees to sustainable diets. Sustainability, 5(11), 4797–4824.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Krishnanunni Mavinkal Ravindran, Philippa J. Jones, Mark Rayment
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.