Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Farmers Towards Restoration of Degraded Land; the Cases of Harbo and Adea districts in the Oromia Region, Ethiopia


  • Hiwot Hailu Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia
  • Omer Hinde Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia
  • Rorisa Midhakso Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia
  • Gizachaw Bayera Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia
  • Beliyu Limenih Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia
  • Alemayehu N Ayana Ethiopian Forestry Development, Ethiopia



Attitude, Behavior, Degraded Land, Knowledge, Restoration


Land restoration is one of Ethiopia's top priorities for aligning development efforts with a climate-resilient green economy. In Ethiopia, initiatives to rehabilitate degraded land are generally evaluated in terms of the local people's economic and environmental impacts. Farmers' knowledge, attitudes, and actions toward land restoration, on the other hand, have to be taken into consideration for long-term natural resource conservation. As a consequence, this study examines the relationships between farmers' knowledge, attitude, and contributions to behavioral change in the restoration of degraded land. Data were collected from 120 farmers who participated in the restoration of degraded land. Structural equation models and mediation analyses were utilized for path analysis. The findings indicated that farmers had a good understanding of land restoration techniques. Analysis of the causal models revealed that farmers' attitude toward land restoration is highly influenced by their knowledge level of farmers. The outcome also revealed that positive attitudes of farmers resulted in behavioral change towards land restoration. Effective local community participation in the land restoration process and strengthening of their knowledge and attitudes that influence their behavior should be the cornerstones of sustainable land restoration.


Download data is not yet available.


Adnan, N., Nordin, S. M., Rahman, I., & Noor, A. (2018). The effects of knowledge transfer on farmers decision making toward sustainable agriculture practices: In view of green fertilizer technology. World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development. 15 (1), 98-115.

Ahmad, J., Md. Noor, S., & Ismail, N. (2015). Investigating students’ environmental knowledge, attitude, practice, and communication. Asian Social Science, 11(16), 284–293.

Amare, D., Mekuria, W., & Belay, B. (2017). Willingness and participation of local communities to manage communal grazing lands in the Lake Tana biosphere, Ethiopia. Society & Natural Resources, 30(6), 674–689.

Arbuckle, J. G., Morton, L. W., & Hobbs, J. (2013). Farmer beliefs and concerns about climate change and attitudes toward adaptation and mitigation: Evidence from Iowa. Climatic Change, 118(3–4), 551–563.

Azman, A., D’Silva, J. L., Samah, B. A., Man, N., & Shaffril, H. A. M. (2013). Relationship between attitude, knowledge, and support towards the acceptance of sustainable agriculture among contract farmers in Malaysia. Asian Social Science, 9(2), 99–105.

Charnley, S., Fischer, A. P., & Jones, E. T. (2007). Integrating traditional and local ecological knowledge into forest biodiversity conservation in the Pacific Northwest. Forest Ecology and Management, 246(1), 14–28.

Cohen, J. (1992). Statistical power analysis. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1(3), 98–101.

Creswell, J. W., & Creswell, J. D. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approach. Sage publications.

Dawoe, E. K., Quashie-Sam, J., Isaac, M. E., & Oppong, S. K. (2012). Exploring farmers’ local knowledge and perceptions of soil fertility and management in the Ashanti Region of Ghana. Geoderma, 179–180, 96–103.

Deng, J., Sun, P., Zhao, F., Han, X., Yang, G., & Feng, Y. (2016). Analysis of the ecological conservation behavior of farmers in payment for ecosystem service programs in eco-environmentally fragile areas using social psychology models. Science of the Total Environment, 550, 382–390.

Dentzman, K., Gunderson, R., & Jussaume, R. (2016). Techno-optimism as a barrier to overcoming herbicide resistance: comparing farmer perceptions of the future potential of herbicides. Journal of Rural Studies, 48, 22–32.

Deribew, K. T., & Dalacho, D. W. (2019). Land use and forest cover dynamics in the northeastern Addis Ababa, central highlands of Ethiopia. Environmental Systems Research, 8(1), 1–18.

Eshetu, E. Y., Tigabu, M., Lemenih, M., Negash, M., & Teketay, D. (2014). Rehabilitation of Degraded Forest and Woodland Ecosystems in Ethiopia for Sustenance of Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services. In Forests under pressure–Local responses to global issues (pp. 299–313). International union of forest research organizations.

Floress, K., de Jalón, S. G., Church, S. P., Babin, N., Ulrich-Schad, J. D., & Prokopy, L. S. (2017). Toward a theory of farmer conservation attitudes: Dual interests and willingness to take action to protect water quality. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 53, 73–80.

Gebremeskel, G., Gebremicael, T. G., & Girmay, A. (2018). Economic and environmental rehabilitation through soil and water conservation, the case of Tigray in northern Ethiopia. Journal of Arid Environments, 151, 113–124.

Goodhue, D. L., Lewis, W., & Thompson, R. (2012). Does PLS have advantages for small sample sizes or non-normal data? MIS Quarterly, 981–1001.

Greiner, R. (2015). Motivations and attitudes influence farmers’ willingness to participate in biodiversity conservation contracts. Agricultural Systems, 137, 154–165.

Haregeweyn, N., Berhe, A., Tsunekawa, A., Tsubo, M., & Meshesha, D. T. (2012). Integrated watershed management as an effective approach to curb land degradation: a case study of the Enabled watershed in northern Ethiopia. Environmental Management, 50(6), 1219–1233.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115–135.

Hirpa, G. Y., Letema, S. C., & Ming’ate, F. L. M. (2023). Effect of Forest Landscape Restoration on Ecosystem Services in Ethiopia: Review for Future Insight. Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), 4(3), 327-338.

Kassa, H., Birhane, E., Bekele, M., Lemenih, M., Tadesse, W., Cronkleton, P., Putzel, L., & Baral, H. (2017). Shared strengths and limitations of participatory forest management and area exclosure: Two major state-led landscape rehabilitation mechanisms in Ethiopia. International Forestry Review, 19(4), 51–61.

Kitzmüller, C. (2013). Environmental Knowledge and Willingness to Change Personal Behaviour. An American-Austrian Comparison of Energy Use. The University of Salzburg.

Kollmuss, A., & Agyeman, J. (2002). Mind the Gap: Why do people act environmentally and what are the barriers to pro-environmental behavior? Environmental Education Research, 8(3), 239–260.

Latif, S. A., Omar, M. S., Bidin, Y. H., & Awang, Z. (2012). Environmental values as a predictor of recycling behavior in urban areas: A comparative study. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 50, 989–996.

Marques, M. J., Schwilch, G., Lauterburg, N., Crittenden, S., Tesfai, M., Stolte, J., Zdruli, P., Zucca, C., Petursdottir, T., & Evelpidou, N. (2016). Multifaceted impacts of sustainable land management in drylands: a review. Sustainability, 8(2), 177.

Mekoya, A. K. (2008). Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia: farmers’ perception, constraints to adoption and effects of long-term supplementation on sheep performance. In Multipurpose fodder trees in Ethiopia: farmers’ perception, constraints to adoption and effects of long-term supplementation on sheep performance.

Mekuria, W., Barron, J., Dessalegn, M., Adimassu, Z., Amare, T., & Wondie, M. (2017). Exclosures for ecosystem restoration and economic benefits in Ethiopia: a catalog of management options. International Water Management Institute (IWMI). CGIAR Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems (WLE).. 28p. (WLE Research for Development (R4D) Learning Series 4).

Mulema, A. A., Lema, Z., Damtew, E., Adie, A., Ogutu, Z., & Duncan, A. J. (2017). Stakeholders’ perceptions of integrated rainwater management approach in the Blue Nile Basin of the Ethiopian highlands. Natural Resources Forum, 41(4), 244–254.

Muys, B., Gebrehiwot, K., & Bruneel, S. (2006). The environmental, socio-economic, and managerial aspects of dryland forest rehabilitation in Ethiopia. Environmental Protection, 1(2), 95–97.

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879–891.

Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Hair, J. F. (2017). Treating unobserved heterogeneity in PLS-SEM: A multi-method approach. In Partial least squares path modeling (pp. 197–217). Springer.

Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., Smith, D., Reams, R., & Hair Jr, J. F. (2014). Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM): A useful tool for family business researchers. Journal of Family Business Strategy, 5(1), 105–115.

Schahn, J., & Giesinger, T. (1993). Psychologiefi’ir den Umweltschutz. Weinheim: Psychologie.

Tadesse, S. A., & Teketay, D. (2017). Perceptions and attitudes of local people towards participatory forest management in Tarmaber District of North Shewa Administrative Zone, Ethiopia: the case of Wof-Washa Forests. Ecological Processes, 6(1), 1–16.

Tesfahunegn, G. B. (2019). Farmers’ perception on land degradation in northern Ethiopia: Implication for developing sustainable land management. The Social Science Journal, 56(2), 268–287.

Tesfaye, Y., Roos, A., & Bohlin, F. (2012). Attitudes of local people towards collective action for forest management: the case of participatory forest management in Dodola area in the Bale Mountains, Southern Ethiopia. Biodiversity and Conservation, 21(1), 245–265.

Vinzi, V. E., Trinchera, L., & Amato, S. (2010). PLS path modeling: from foundations to recent developments and open issues for model assessment and improvement. Handbook of Partial Least Squares, 47–82.

Yirdaw, E., Tigabu, M., & Monge Monge, A. A. (2017). Rehabilitation of degraded dryland ecosystems–a review. Silva Fennica.

Zainudin, A. (2012). Structural equation modeling using AMOS graphic. Shah Alam: Universiti Teknologi MARA Publication Centre (UPENA).

Zhang, J., Niu, J., Buyantuev, A., & Wu, J. (2014). A multilevel analysis of effects of land use policy on land-cover change and local land use decisions. Journal of Arid Environments, 108,19–28.



How to Cite

Hailu, H., Hinde, O. ., Midhakso, R. ., Bayera, G. ., Limenih, B. ., & Ayana, A. N. . (2024). Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior of Farmers Towards Restoration of Degraded Land; the Cases of Harbo and Adea districts in the Oromia Region, Ethiopia. Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), 5(1), 1-13.