Climate Change and Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health: An Overview
Keywords:Anthropogenic, Climate Change, Diseases, Human Health, Population
The causes of climate patchy rope in heat up temperature, change in precipitation, degree of utmost conditions occasions like melting of glaciers, polar ice-caps, mount in sea levels, etc. These impacts eventually fall our income by touching the rations we eat, the water we drink, the air we breathe and the earth somewhere we live. Frequent impacts caused fitting to excessive exposure of heat waves such as round stroke, dehydration, cardiovascular, respiratory and neural comborbidities. Climate conversion alters the ecology of vectors and these vectors are capable of have in stock causal agents such as viruses, bacteria and protozoa from animals to humans. Malaria, tick-borne encephalitis, fair fever, plague, and dengue obtain lengthened their geographical ranges as their carriers migrated to privileged latitudes. Droughts canister take part in adverse property on being health, as they over and over again suggest itself in mishmash with other sit out conditions, such as warm waves, wildfires and dust storms. Reduced water quantity may cause decreased water flow during periods of drought, encouraging the development of pathogens which prefer dry, stagnant environments. Altering climatic situation know how to be attributed to mounting international temperatures, spread in the dimensions of ambient fill up fumes and changes in the announce motion as mutual together. Extreme season and climate-related actions are famous to set off fundamental infrastructure failures, lucrative harm and relocation of communities, ensuing in a quantity of health problems.
Akinbami, L. J., J. E.Moorman, C. Bailey, H. S. Zahran, M. King, C. A. Johnson, and X. Liu, (2012): Trends in Asthma Prevalence, Health Care Use, and Mortality in the United States.
Arneth, A. et al. (2010).Terrestrial biogeochemical feedbacks in the climate system. Nature Geosci. 3, 525–532.
Balbus, J. M. (1998). Human Health. In Handbook on Methods of Climate Change Impact Assessment and Adaptation Strategies, Version 2.0, ed.
Bell, J. E., Herring, S. C., Jantarasami, L., Adrianopoli, C., Benedict, K., Conlon, K., & Quattrochi, D. (2016). Ch. 4: Impacts of Extreme Events on Human Health (pp. 99-128). US Global Change Research Program, Washington, DC.)
Bhattacharya S, Sharma C, Dhiman RC, Mitra AP. (2006). Climate change and malaria in India. Curr Sci 90:369-375.
Busby, J. W. (2008). Who cares about the weather?: Climate change and US national security. Security Studies, 17(3), 468-504.
Capstick, S. B., & Pidgeon, N. F. (2014). What is climate change scepticism? Examination of the concept using a mixed methods study of the UK public. Global Environmental Change, 24: 389-401.
Carslaw, K. S. et al. (2010). A review of natural aerosol interactions and feedbacks within the Earth system. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10, 1701–1737
Christophers, S.R., (1960). Aedes aegypti (L.) The Yellow Fever Mosquito. Its Life History, Bionomics and Structure. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
Clark, M. P., Gangopadhyay, S., Brandon, D., Werner, K., Hay, L., Rajagopalan, B., & Yates, D. (2004). A resampling procedure for generating conditioned daily weather sequences. Water Resources Research, 40(4).
Colwell, R.R. (1996). Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science, 274 (5295), 2025-2031.
Coumou, D., & Rahmstorf, S. (2012). A decade of weather extremes. Nature climate change, 2(7), 491-496.
CRS Report RL34059, The Carbon Cycle: Implications for Climate Change and Congress, by Peter Folger.
Curtis, F. (2007). Climate change, peak oil, and globalization: contradictions of natural capital. Review of Radical Political Economics 39 (3), 385-390.
Curtis, S., Fair, A., Wistow, J., Val, D. V., & Oven, K. (2017). Impact of extreme weather events and climate change for health and social care systems. Environmental Health, 16(1), 128.
Delpla, I., Jung, A. V., Baures, E., Clement, M., & Thomas, O. (2009). Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Environment international, 35(8), 1225-1233.
Dhiman RC, Pahwa S, Dash AP. (2008). Climate change and Malaria in India: interplay between temperature and mosquitoes. Regional Health Forum, 12:27-31.
Diaz, H. F., and G. McCabe (1999). A possible connection between the 1878 yellow fever epidemic in the southern United States and the 1877–78 El Nino Episode. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 80:21-27.
Epstein PR. (1999). Climate and Health. Science, 285:347-348.
Fantazzini, D., Ho¨ok, M., Angelantoni, A. (2011). Global oil risks in the early 21stcentury. Energy Policy, 39 (12), 7865-7873.
Forster, P. et al. (2007). Climate Change (2007): The Physical Science Basis (eds Solomon, S. et al. Cambridge Univ. Press.
Francis, D., & Hengeveld, H. (1998). Extreme weather and climate change. Ontario: Environment Canada.
Frank, C., Littman, M., Alpers, K., Hallauer, J., (2006). Vibrio vulnificus wound infections after contact with the Baltic Sea, Germany. Eur. Surg. 11, 1.
Haines, A. & McMichael, A. J. (1997). Climate change and health: implications for research, monitoring, and policy. British Medical Journal, 315, 870–4.
Haines, A., Kovats, R. S., Campbell-Lendrum, D., & Corvalán, C. (2006). Climate change and human health: impacts, vulnerability, and mitigation. The Lancet, 367(9528), 2101-2109.
Hamilton, L. C., & Keim, B. D. (2009). Regional variation in perceptions about climate change. International Journal of Climatology: A Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, 29(15), 2348-2352.
Hess, J. J., Eidson, M., Tlumak, J. E., Raab, K. K., & Luber, G. (2014). An evidence-based public health approach to climate change adaptation. Environmental Health Perspectives, 122(11), 1177-1186.
Howe, K., Clark, M. D., Torroja, C. F., Torrance, J., Berthelot, C., Muffato, M., & McLaren, S. (2013). The zebrafish reference genome sequence and its relationship to the human genome. Nature, 496(7446), 498-503.
Huber, D. G., & Gulledge, J. (2011). Extreme weather and climate change: Understanding the link, managing the risk. Arlington: Pew Center on Global Climate Change.
IPCC. (2013). Climate change 2013: the physical science basis. In: Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K, Tignor M, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds) Contribution of working group I to the ﬁfth assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY. 1535.
IPCC. (2013). Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY, 1535
IPCC. (2014). Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. 1132 pp., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK and New York, NY.
Johanning, E., Auger, P., Morey, P. R., Yang, C. S., & Olmsted, E. (2014). Review of health hazards and prevention measures for response and recovery workers and volunteers after natural disasters, flooding, and water damage: mold and dampness. Environmental Health and preventive medicine, 19(2), 93-99.
Johnson, B. J., & Sukhdeo, M. V. K. (2013). Drought-induced amplification of local and regional West Nile virus infection rates in New Jersey. Journal of medical entomology, 50(1), 195-204.
Johnson, N. B., L. D. Hayes, K. Brown, E. C. Hoo, and K. A. Ethier. (2014). CDC National Health Report: Leading Causes of Morbidity and Mortality and Associated Behavioral Risk and Protective Factors - United States, (2005-2013). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report - Supplements, 63, 3-27.
Jones, K., (2001). Campylobacters in water, sewage and the environment. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90, 68S-79S.
Cochrane, M. A. and C. P. Barber. (2008). Climate Change, Human Land Use and Future Fires in the Amazon. Global Change Biology, 15, (3). 601-612.
Mahowald, N. (2011). Aerosol indirect effects on biogeochemical cycles and climate. Science 334, 794-796.
Marcheggiani, S., Puccinelli, C., Ciadamidaro, S., Della Bella, V., Carere, M., Francesca Blasi, M., & Mancini, L. (2010). Risks of water-borne disease outbreaks after extreme events. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 92(3), 593-599.
Matzarakis, A. (2006). Weather-and climate-related information for tourism. Tourism and Hospitality Planning & Development, 3(2), 99-115.)
McCartney, G., Hanlon, P., Romanes, F. (2008). Climate change and rising energy costs will change everything: a new mindset and action plan for 21st century public health. Public Health, 122 (7), 658-663.
McGregor, G. R., Ferro, C. A., & Stephenson, D. B. (2005). Projected changes in extreme weather and climate events in Europe. In Extreme Weather Events and Public Health Responses Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
McLaughlin JB, Depoala A, Bopp CA, et al. (2005). Emergence of Vibro parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis associated with consumption of Alaskan oysters and its global implications. New England J Med, 353 (14),1463-70.
McMichael AJ, Campbell-Lendrum DH, Corvalán CF, Ebi KL, Githeko A, Scheraga JD, et al. (2003). Climate Change and Human Health-Risks and Responses. Geneva:World Health Organization.
McMichael, A. J., Haines, A., Slooff R., & Kovats, S. (1996). Climate Change and Human Health: an Assessment Prepared by a Task Group on Behalf of the World Health Organization, the World Major Metereological Organization and United Nations Environment Program. Geneva: World Health Organization.
Menne B, Murray V. (2013). Floods in the WHO European Region: health effects and their prevention. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health OrganiationEuropean Office.
Moriarty, P., Honnery, D. (2009). What energy levels can the Earth sustain? Energy Policy 37 (7), 2469-2474.
Mueller, B., & Seneviratne, S. I. (2012). Hot days induced by precipitation deficits at the global scale. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, 109(31), 12398-12403.
Obiri-Danso, K., Paul, N., Jones, K. (2001). The effects of UVB and temperature on the survival of natural populations and pure cultures of Campylobacter jejuni, Camp. coli, Camp. lari and urease-positive thermophilic campylobacters (UPTC) in surface waters. J. Appl. Microbiol. 90, 256-267.
Patz JA, Gibbs HK, Foley JA, Rogers JV, Smith KR. (2007). Climate change and global health: quantifying a growing ethical crisis. EcoHealth, (4), 397-405.
Patz JA, Olson SH. (2006). Climate change and health: global to local influences on disease risk. Ann Trop Med Parasitol, (100), 535-549.
Scott, D., & Lemieux, C. (2010). Weather and climate information for tourism. Procedia Environmental Sciences, (1), 146-183.
Smith, K.R.; Woodward, A.; Campbell-Lendrum, D. et al. (2014). In Climate Change: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Field, C.B., Barros, V.R., Dokken, D.J., Mach, K.J., Mastrandewa, M.D., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., et al. Eds. 2014; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK,; Chapter 11.
Stanke, C., Kerac, M., Prudhomme, C., Medlock, J., & Murray, V. (2013). Health effects of drought: a systematic review of the evidence. PLoS currents, 5.
Stanwell-Smith, R. (1998). Climate change: implications for European surveillance of infectious diseases. Paper presented at WHO meeting on early human health effects of climate change in Europe. Rome, May.
Stephenson, D. B., Diaz, H. F., & Murnane, R. J. (2008). Definition, diagnosis, and origin of extreme weather and climate events. Climate Extremes and Society, 340, 11-23.
Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner G-K,Alexander LV, Allen SK, Bindoff NL, et al. (2013). Technical summary.
T. Tomich, ed. (2003). Forces Driving Tropical Deforestation, ASB (Alternatives to Slash-and-Burn) Policy Briefs 06, Nairobi, Kenya, November.
Whitehead, P. G., Wilby, R. L., Battarbee, R. W., Kernan, M., & Wade, A. J. (2009). A review of the potential impacts of climate change on surface water quality. Hydrological sciences journal, 54(1), 101-123.
Zaval, L., Keenan, E. A., Johnson, E. J., & Weber, E. U. (2014). How warm days increase belief in global warming. Nature Climate Change, 4(2), 143-147.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Aadil Gulzar, Tajamul Islam, Ruquia Gulzar, Tabasum Hassan
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.