Biomass and Carbon Stock in the Sal (Shorea robusta) Forest of Dang District Nepal

Authors

  • Supuspa Regmi Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Krishna Prasad Dahal Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Garima Sharma Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Siddhartha Regmi Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal
  • Mahamad Sayab Miya Institute of Forestry, Tribhuvan University, Nepal

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v2i3.281

Keywords:

Biomass, Carbon Stock, Growth Modeling, Shorea robusta, Tropical Forest

Abstract

The study was conducted to find the net carbon stock in the Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in Bagdaila Chisapani community forest of Dang district, Nepal. The inventory was done by a stratified sampling technique with 0.5% sampling intensity taking into account the woody plants with ≥ 5cm DBH. A total of 49 sample plots of radius 8.94m and 5.64 were established to measure tree biomass and sapling biomass respectively in the forest. The mean above-ground carbon (AGC) was 160.4 t ha-1 and the mean below-ground carbon (BGC) was 24.1t ha-1. The mean total carbon stock in the study area was estimated to be 99.02 t ha-1; of which maximum carbon stock of 143.51 t ha-1 was found in block number 5. Sal was the major tree species in the CF. The biomass and carbon content in this forest is found quite low as compared to other studies in the Sal forest and other tropical forests which were due to the presence of tree stands of less diameter and height. This study would be helpful in the long-term management of forests, planning, and research purposes. The data from this study could also be taken as a reference document for the participation of community forests in carbon accounting under the REDD+ scheme in Nepal.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Adame, P., Cañellas, I., Moreno-Fernández, D., Packalen, T., Hernández, L., & Alberdi, I. (2020). Analyzing the Joint Effect of Forest Management and Wildfires on Living Biomass and Carbon Stocks in Spanish Forests. Forests, 11 (11), 1219.

Alexandrov, G. A. (2007). Carbon stock growth in a forest stand: the power of age. Carbon Balance and Management, 2 (1), 1-5.

ANSAB. (2010). Forest Carbon Stock Measurement: Guidelines for measuring carbon stocks in community-managed forests.

Avitabile, V., Herold, M., Heuvelink, G.B.M., Lewis, S.L., Phillips, O.L., et al., (2016). An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets. Global Change Biology, 22, 1406–1420.

Banik, B., Deb, D., Deb, S., & Datta, B. K. (2018). Assessment of biomass and carbon stock in sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.) forests under two management regimes in Tripura, Northeast India. Journal of forest and environmental science, 34 (3), 209-223.

Banskota, K., Karky, B., & Skutsch, M. (2007). Reducing carbon emissions through community-managed forests in the Himalaya. International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD).

Baral, S. K., Malla, R., & Ranabhat, S. (2009). Above-ground carbon stock assessment in different forest types of Nepal. Banko Janakari, 19 (2), 10-14.

Behera, S. K., Sahu, N., Mishra, A. K., Bargali, S. S., Behera, M. D., & Tuli, R. (2017). Aboveground biomass and carbon stock assessment in Indian tropical deciduous forest and relationship with stand structural attributes. Ecological Engineering, 99, 513-524.

Bhusal, M. (2011). An Analytical Study of Carbon Stock in Shores robusta Forest of Two Different Ecological Zones of Nepal (case study from Gorkha and Chitwan district). Tribhuvan University, Pokhara.

Bohara, B., Miya, M. S., Timilsina, S., Gautam, D., & Regmi, S. (2021). Biomass and Carbon Stock Variation along slopes in Tropical Forest of Nepal: A case of Depard Community Forest, Makwanpur, Nepal. Journal of Multidisciplinary Applied Natural Science, 1(2), 89-99.

Brown, S. L., Schroeder, P., & Kern, J. S. (1999). Spatial distribution of biomass in forests of the eastern USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 123 (1), 81-90.

Canadell, J. G., & Raupach, M. R. (2008). Managing forests for climate change mitigation. Science, 320 (5882), 1456-1457.

Cao, J., Wang, X., Tian, Y., Wen, Z., & Zha, T. (2012). Pattern of carbon allocation across three different stages of stand development of a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) forest. Ecological Research, 27 (5), 883-892.

CBS. (2012). National population and housing census 2011. National Report.

Charmakar, S., Oli, B. N., Joshi, N. R., Maraseni, T. N., & Atreya, K. (2021). Forest carbon storage and species richness in FSC certified and non-certified community forests in Nepal. Small-scale Forestry, 20 (2), 199-219.

Chave, J., Andalo, C., Brown, S., Cairns, M. A., Chambers, J. Q., Eamus, D., Fölster, H., Fromard, F., Higuchi, N., Kira, T., Lescure, J.P., Nelson, B.W., Ogawa, H., Puig, H., Riéra, B., & Yamakura, T. (2005). Tree allometry and improved estimation of carbon stocks and balance in tropical forests. Oecologia, 145 (1), 87-99.

Dar, J. A., Rather, M. Y., Subashree, K., Sundarapandian, S., & Khan, M. L. (2017). Distribution patterns of tree, understorey, and detritus biomass in coniferous and broad-leaved forests of Western Himalaya, India. Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 36 (8), 787-805.

Dixon, R. K., Solomon, A. M., Brown, S., Houghton, R. A., Trexier, M. C., & Wisniewski, J. (1994). Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science, 263 (5144), 185-190.

Eggleston, S., Buendia, L., Miwa, K., Ngara, T., & Tanabe, K. (2006). IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories.

Eriksson, E., & Berg, S. (2007). Implications of environmental quality objectives on the potential of forestry to reduce net CO2 emissions–a case study in central Sweden. Forestry, 80 (2), 99-111.

Fahey, T. J., Woodbury, P. B., Battles, J. J., Goodale, C. L., Hamburg, S. P., Ollinger, S. V., & Woodall, C. W. (2010). Forest carbon storage: ecology, management, and policy. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 8 (5), 245-252.

FAO. (2011). FAO Glossary of Terms,. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).

Forsell, N., Korosuo, A., Fedeirici, S., Gusti, M., Rincón-Cristóbal, J. J., Rüter, S., Sánchez-Jiménez, B., Dore, C., Brajterman, O., & Gardiner, J. (2018). Guidance on developing and reporting the Forest Reference Levels in accordance with Regulation (EU) 2018/841.

Gautam, K. H., & Devoe, N. N. (2006). Ecological and anthropogenic niches of sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn. f.) forest and prospects for multiple-product forest management - A review. Forestry, 79(1), 81–101,

Gautam, T. P., & Mandal, T. N. (2016). Effect of disturbance on biomass, production and carbon dynamics in moist tropical forest of eastern Nepal. Forest Ecosystems, 3 (1), 1-10.

Ghimire, P. (2017). Plant Species Diversity and Tree Carbon Stock in Danphe community Forest, Kuirepani, Dang, Nepal (Doctoral dissertation, Central Department of Botany Tribhuvan University Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal).

Gibbs, H. K., Brown, S., Niles, J. O., & Foley, J. A. (2007). Monitoring and estimating tropical forest carbon stocks: making REDD a reality. Environmental research letters, 2 (4), 045023.

Harishma, K. M., Sandeep, S., & Sreekumar, V. B. (2020). Biomass and carbon stocks in mangrove ecosystems of Kerala, southwest coast of India. Ecological Processes, 9 (1), 1-9.

Houghton, R. A. (2005). Aboveground forest biomass and the global carbon balance. Global change biology, 11 (6), 945-958.

IPCC. (2007). Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. New York Cambridge University Press, Geneva. https://doi.org/10.1038/446727a

Jackson, J. K. (1994). Manual of afforestation in Nepal, Volume 2. p.214. http://www.doc-developpement-durable.org/file/Arbres-Bois-de-Rapport-Reforestation/FICHES_ARBRES/bambou/Jacksonbamboo.pdf accessed on 20 May 2021.

Jina, B. S., Sah, P., Bhatt, M. D., & Rawat, Y. S. (2008). Estimating carbon sequestration rates and total carbon stockpile in degraded and non-degraded sites of Oak and Pine forest of Kumaun Central Himalaya. Ecoprint: An International Journal of Ecology, 15, 75-81.

Karki, S., Joshi, N. R., Udas, E., Adhikari, M. D., Sherpa, S., Kotru, R., Karky, B. S., Chhetri, N., & Ning, W. (2016). Assessment of forest carbon stock and carbon sequestration rates at the ICIMOD Knowledge Park at Godavari. ICIMOD Working Paper, (2016/6).

Kaul, M., Mohren, G. M. J., & Dadhwal, V. K. (2010). Carbon storage and sequestration potential of selected tree species in India. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 15 (5), 489-510.

Ketterings, Q. M., Coe, R., van Noordwijk, M., & Palm, C. A. (2001). Reducing uncertainty in the use of allometric biomass equations for predicting above-ground tree biomass in mixed secondary forests. Forest Ecology and management, 146 (1-3), 199-209.

Kirschbaum, M. U. (2000). What contribution can tree plantations make towards meeting Australia’s commitments under the Kyoto Protocol?. Environmental Science & Policy, 3 (2-3), 83-90.

Komolafe, E. T., Chukwuka, K. S., Obiakara, M. C., & Osonubi, O. (2020). Carbon stock and sequestration potential of Ibodi monkey forest in Atakumosa, Osun state, Nigeria. Trees, Forests and People, 2, 100031.

Lewis, S. L., Sonké, B., Sunderland, T., Begne, S. K., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Van Der Heijden, G. M. et al. (2013). Above-ground biomass and structure of 260 African tropical forests. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1625), 20120295.

Mandal, R. A., Dutta, I. C., Jha, P. K., & Karmacharya, S. (2013). Relationship between carbon stock and plant biodiversity in collaborative forests in Terai, Nepal. International Scholarly Research Notices, 2013.

Mitchard, E.T.A., Feldpausch, T.R., Brienen, R.J.W., Lopez-Gonzalez, G., Monteagudo, A., et al., (2014). Markedly divergent estimates of Amazon forest carbon density from ground plots and satellites. Global Ecology and Biogeography, 23, 935–946.

Mokany, K., Raison, R. J., & Prokushkin, A. S. (2006). Critical analysis of root: shoot ratios in terrestrial biomes. Global change biology, 12 (1), 84-96.

Nepal, S. (2006). A Comparative study on Carbon Sequestration from two forest types in Community Forestry System (A case study from coniferous and broad leaved forests in Palpa District) B. Sc thesis submitted to Tribhuwan University, Institute of Forestry.

Ngo, K. M., Turner, B. L., Muller-Landau, H. C., Davies, S. J., Larjavaara, M., bin Nik Hassan, N. F., & Lum, S. (2013). Carbon stocks in primary and secondary tropical forests in Singapore. Forest Ecology and Management, 296, 81-89.

Pan, Y., Birdsey, R. A., Fang, J., Houghton, R., Kauppi, P. E., Kurz, W. A., Phillips, O. L., Shvidenko, A., Lewis, S. L., Canadell, J. G., Ciais, P., Jackson, R. B., Pacala, S. W., McGuire, A. D., Piao, S., Rautiainen, A., Stephen Sitch, S., & Hayes, D. (2011). A large and persistent carbon sink in the world’s forests. Science, 333(6045), 988-993.

Pan, Y., Birdsey, R. A., Phillips, O. L., & Jackson, R. B. (2013). The structure, distribution, and biomass of the world's forests. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics, 44, 593-622.

Panday, D., Ojha, R. B., Chalise, D., Das, S., & Twanabasu, B. (2019). Spatial variability of soil properties under different land use in the Dang district of Nepal. Cogent Food & Agriculture, 5 (1), 1600460.

Pandey, H. P., & Bhusal, M. (2016). A comparative study on carbon stock in Sal (Shorea robusta) forest in two different ecological regions of Nepal. Banko Janakari, 26 (1), 24-31.

Pandey, S. S., Maraseni, T. N., & Cockfield, G. (2014). Carbon stock dynamics in different vegetation dominated community forests under REDD+: a case from Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management, 327, 40-47.

Panzou, G. J. L., Fayolle, A., Feldpausch, T. R., Ligot, G., Doucet, J. L., Forni, E., Zombo, I., Mazengue, M., Loumeto, J. J., & Gourlet-Fleury, S. (2018). What controls local-scale aboveground biomass variation in central Africa? Testing structural, composition and architectural attributes. Forest Ecology and Management, 429, 570-578.

Phillips, O. L., Malhi, Y., Higuchi, N., Laurance, W. F., Núnez, P. V., Vásquez, R. M., Laurance, S. G., Ferreira, L. V., Stern, M., Brown, S., & Grace, J. (1998). Changes in the carbon balance of tropical forests: evidence from long-term plots. Science, 282 (5388), 439-442.

Raha, D., Dar, J. A., Pandey, P. K., Lone, P. A., Verma, S., Khare, P. K., & Khan, M. L. (2020). Variation in tree biomass and carbon stocks in three tropical dry deciduous forest types of Madhya Pradesh, India. Carbon Management, 11 (2), 109-120.

Reichstein, M., Bahn, M., Ciais, P., Frank, D., Mahecha, M. D., Seneviratne, S. I., Zscheischler, J., Beer, C,. Buchmann, N., Frank, D. C., Papale, D., Rammig, A., Smith, P., Thonicke, K., Velde, M., Vicca, S., Walz, A., & Wattenbach, M. (2013). Climate extremes and the carbon cycle. Nature, 500 (7462), 287-295.

Saatchi, S.S., Harris, N.L., Brown, S., Lefsky, M., Mitchard, E.T., Salas, W., et al., (2011). Benchmark map of forest carbon stocks in tropical regions across three continents. PNAS 108 (24), 9899–9904.

Shrestha, B. (2008). An Analytical Study of Carbon Sequestration in Three Different Forest Types of Mid-Hills of Nepal. M.Sc. Thesis, Tribhuvan University, Institute of Forestry, Pokhara, Nepal.

Skutsch, M., & Van Laake, P. E. (2008). Redd as multi-level governance in-the-making. Energy & environment, 19 (6), 831-844.

Subedi, B. P., Pandey, S. S., Pandey, A., Rana, E. B., Bhattarai, S., Banskota, T. R., ... & Tamrakar, R. (2010). Forest carbon stock measurement: guidelines for measuring carbon stocks in community-managed forests. Kathmandu: ANSAB, FECOFUN, ICIMOD.

Suryawanshi, M. N., Patel, A. R., Kale, T. S., & Patil, P. R. (2014). Carbon sequestration potential of tree species in the environment of North Maharashtra University Campus, Jalgaon (MS) India. Bioscience Discovery, 5 (2), 175-179.

Tamrakar, P. R. (2000). Biomass and volume tables with species description for community forest management. His Majesty’s Government of Nepal, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. Natural Resource Management Sector Assistance Programme (NARMSAP), Tree Improvement and Silviculture Component.

Tripathi, S., Thapa, C. B., & Sharma, A. (2017). Biomass Carbon Content in Schima-Castanopsis Forest of Midhills of Nepal: A Case Study from Jaisikuna Community Forest, Kaski. Himalayan Biodiversity, 5 (1), 1-8.

UNFCC Kyoto Protocol Reference Manual. (2008). United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. https://unfccc.int/sites/default/files/08_unfccc_kp_ref_manual.pdf accessed on 4 June 2021.

UNFCCC. (2015). Conference of the Parties Twenty-first session, Adoption of the Paris Agreement. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF0232712y

Upadhyay, T. P., Sankhayan, P. L., & Solberg, B. (2005). A review of carbon sequestration dynamics in the Himalayan region as a function of land-use change and forest/soil degradation with special reference to Nepal. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 105 (3), 449-465.

Vachnadze, G., Tiginashvili, Z., Tsereteli, G., Aptsiauri, B., & Basilidze, L. (2018). Carbon stock sequestered in the phytocenosis of oak forests in Georgia. Annals of Agrarian Science, 16 (4), 476-480.

Webb, E. L., & Sah R. N. (2003). Structure and diversity of natural and managed sal (Shorea robusta Gaertn.f) forest in the Terai of Nepal. Forest Ecology and Management, 176 (1-3), 337–353.

Published

2021-12-28

How to Cite

Regmi, S. ., Dahal, K. P. ., Sharma, G. ., Regmi, S. ., & Miya, M. S. (2021). Biomass and Carbon Stock in the Sal (Shorea robusta) Forest of Dang District Nepal. Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), 2(3), 204-212. https://doi.org/10.47540/ijsei.v2i3.281

Issue

Section

Articles