Validating Children 's Stories and Decisions after Trafficking for Prostitution
Keywords:Child trafficking; Sex trafficking of minors; Parent involvement in trafficking; Child recruitment for prostitution; Nigeria and West Africa; Children’s voice in Reintegration after trafficking
AbstractResearch on trafficking for prostitution in West Africa is focussed mostly on the experiences of women. When attention is directed to children, their voices are silent; and attention is placed on traffickers, therefore, downplaying the role of relatives in children’s movement from home. Moreover, when children are removed from trafficking, the usual path to re-integration is to unite them with their parents. Two issues drive this paper: if a parent that is implicated in the trafficking of their child for prostitution should be included in decision-making for reintegrating the child; and if a child understands their experience of trafficking to make informed decisions about moving on after trafficking. Based on this foundation, the paper explores one child’s journey from Nigeria to Burkina Faso for prostitution, with attention to the child’s perspectives on their journey and decisions for moving on after trafficking to inform the inclusion of children trafficked for prostitution in decisions about their reintegration.
Abdulraheem, S., and Oladipo, A. (2010). Trafficking in women and children: A hidden health and social problem in Nigeria. International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2, 3, 34 – 39.
Adepoju, A. (2005). Review of Research and Data on Human Trafficking in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Migration, 43, 1/2, 75 – 98
Aghatise, E. (2004). Trafficking for Prostitution in Italy: Possible Effects of Government Proposals for Legalization of Brothels. Violence against Women, 10, 10, 1126 -1155
Agbu, O. (2003). Corruption and human trafficking: the Nigerian case. West Africa Review, 4, 1, 1 – 13
Akor, L. (2011). Trafficking of women in Nigeria: Causes, consequences and the way forward. Corvinus Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 2, 2, 89-110.
Bamgbose, O. (2002). Teenage prostitution and the future of the female adolescent in Nigeria. International Journal of offender therapy and comparative criminology, 46, 5, 569 - 585.
BBC News (2001). 'Slave ship' timeline. Tuesday, April 17, 2001. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1281391.stm
BBC News (2001). Mystery surrounds child 'slave' ship. Tuesday, April 17, 2001. Available from http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1280991.stm
Dottridge, M. (2002). Trafficking in children in West and Central Africa. Gender and Development, 10, 1, 38- 42
Ebigbo, P. (2003). Child abuse in Africa: Nigeria as focus. International Journal of Early Childhood, 1, 2, 95 – 113
Fayomi, O. (2009). Women, Poverty and Trafficking: A Contextual Exposition of the Nigerian Situation. Journal of Management and Social Sciences, 5, 1, 65 – 79
FitzGibbon, K. (2003). Modern-Day Slavery? The scope of trafficking in Africa. African Security Review, 12, 1, 81 – 89
Germano, G. (2001). “Human trafficking as a transnational problem, the responses of destination countries”, Proceedings of the First Pan-African Conference on Human Trafficking, Abuja, Nigeria, 19 - 23 February 2001, 117-127.
Goździak, E. (2008). On Challenges, Dilemmas, and Opportunities in Studying Trafficked Children. Anthropological Quarterly, 81, 4, 903 – 923
Gozdziak, E., and Bump, M. (2008). Data and Research on Human Trafficking: Bibliography of Research-Based Literature, Final Report, Institute for the Study of International Migration, Georgetown University, Washington, DC., Available from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/224392.pdf
Hossain, M., Zimmerman, C., Abas, M., Light, M., and Watts, C. (2010). The relationship of trauma to mental disorders among trafficked and sexually exploited girls and women. American journal of public health, 100, 12, 2442 - 2449.
Hoot, J., Tadesse, S., and Abdella, R. (2006). Voices seldom heard: Child prostitutes in Ethiopia. Journal of children and poverty, 12, 2, 129 - 139.
Hounmenou, C. (2016). Exploring child prostitution in a major city in the West African region. Child Abuse & Neglect, 59, 26 - 35.
ILO (2014). Profits and poverty: The economics of forced labour. Special Action Programme to Combat Forced Labour (SAP-FL). Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work Branch. International Labour Office, Geneva. Available from http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---ed_norm/---declaration/documents/publication/wcms_243027.pdf
IOM (1996). Trafficking in women to Italy for sexual exploitation. International Organization for Migration, Migration Information Programme
James, A., and Prout, A. (1997). Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. Basingstoke: Falmer
Kelly, L. (2002). Journeys of Jeopardy: A review of research on trafficking in women and children in Europe. International Organization for Migration (IOM).
Kielland, A., and Bjørkhaug, I. (2009). Child Mobility in West Africa: strategy, poverty or crime? On the conflict between academia and a politically ‘framed’ development agenda. Forum for Development Studies, 36, 2, 229 - 256).
Kooijmans, J., and van de Glind, H. (2010). Child slavery today. In G. Craig (Ed.), Child Slavery Now: A Contemporary Reader (pp. 21 – 41). Bristol: The Policy Press,
Laczko, F. (2002). Human trafficking: the need for better data. Migration Information Source, 1, 61-80.
Laczko, F, and Gramegna, M. (2003). Developing better indicators of human trafficking. The Brown Journal of World Affairs, X, 1, 179 - 194.
Lee, M. (2007). Human Trafficking. Portland: Willan Publishing.
Nwogu, V. (2007). Nigeria. In Collateral Damage: The Impact of Anti-Trafficking Measures on Human Rights around the World. Bangkok: GAATW International Secretariat, 142 – 170.
Nwogu, V. (2006). Nigeria: Human Trafficking and Migration. Forced Migration Review 25, 32 - 34.
Marinova, N., and James, P. (2012). The Tragedy of Human Trafficking: Competing Theories and European Evidence. Foreign Policy Analysis, 1 – 23.
Ogwezzy, M. (2011). An appraisal of the Socio-Legal issues Involved in Trafficking of Women and Children. ACTA JURIDICA HUNGARICA, 53, 2, 146 – 164
Ojomo, A. (2000), “Child Trafficking in Nigeria: Policy Perspectives”. A paper presented at the FMWA & YD. In UNICEF Conference on Child Trafficking, Benin, Nigeria.
Onimode, B. (1992). A future for Africa: Beyond the Politics of Adjustment. London: Earthscan Publications.
Onyejekwe, C. (2005). Influences of Global Human Trafficking Issues on Nigeria: A Gender Perspective. Journal of International Women’s Studies, 7, 2, 141 – 151
Osezua, C. A. (2013). Changing status of women and the phenomenon trafficking of women for transactional sex in Nigeria: A qualitative analysis. Journal of International Women's Studies, 14, 3, 14 - 30.
Pile, S. (2006). The strange case of Western cities: Occult globalisations and the making of urban modernity. Urban studies, 43, 2, 305 - 318.
Spyrou, S. (2011). The limits of children’s voices: From authenticity to critical, reflexive representation. Childhood, 18, 2, 151 – 165
Tade, O. (2014). Recruitment and abuse of trafficked children in south-west Nigeria. African Security Review, 23, 3, 264-282.
Tyldum, G., and Brunovskis, A. (2005). Describing the Unobserved: Methodological Challenges in Empirical Studies on Human Trafficking. International Migration, 43, 1/2, 17 – 34
UNODC (2000). United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime and The Protocols Thereto. Vienna: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Available from http://www.unodc.org/documents/treaties/UNTOC/Publications/TOC%20Convention/TOCebook-e.pdf
UNICEF (2007). Child trafficking Information Sheet: Nigeria with estimates from FOS/ILO National Child Labour Survey, 2003, Available from http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/WCARO_Nigeria_Factsheets_ChildTrafficking.pdf
Veeran, V. (2004). Working with Street Children: A Child-centred Approach. Child Care in Practice, 10, 4, 359 – 366.
Wennerholm, C. (2002). Crossing borders and building bridges: the Baltic Region Networking Project. Gender & Development, 10, 1, 10 - 19.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2002 Ifeyinwa Mbakogu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.