Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Kanthi Coast, India by the Geospatial Technology


  • Nayan Dey Research Scholar, SoS in Geography, Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, India
  • Payel Das Department of Geography, Rabindra Bharati University, India



Coastal Beach Assessment, Coastal Vulnerability Index, Coastal Vulnerability Zone, Geospatial Technology, Livelihood Strategies


Since ancient times, most of the world’s civilization flourished along the banks of rivers and the coastal region. So the coastal region plays a vital role for human economic activities as well as their livelihood. The Kanthi coast, the northernmost part of the North Circus coast of India stretches in West Bengal and northern Odisha. The 45 km stretched coast land is associated with a dense population and faces the tropical cyclone emerging from the Bay of Bengal. The prime objective of the paper is to assess the coastal vulnerability of the study area. With the help of several indicators, viz. shoreline change rate, rate of sea level change, slope of the beach, wave height, tidal range, regional elevation, geomorphic features, sediment properties, coastal regulation zone (CRZ) violation ratio, the research work assess the Coastal Vulnerability Zone (CVZ) of the Kanthi Coastal region. The weightage sum method and Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) are being used. From this research work, it has been revealed that the western segment especially, Digha and Shankarpur are experiencing a high vulnerability situation.


Download data is not yet available.


Anfuso, G., & Del Pozo, J. Á. M. (2009). Assessment of coastal vulnerability through the use of GIS tools in South Sicily (Italy). Environmental Management, 43(3), 533-545.

Arkema, K. K., Guannel, G., Verutes, G., Wood, S. A., and Silver, J. M. (2013). Coastal habitats shield people and property from sea-level rise and storms. Nat. Climate Change, 3, 913–918.

Athanasiou, P.; van Dongeren, A.; Giardino, A.; Vousdoukas, M.; Gaytan-Aguilar, S.; Ranasinghe, R. (2019). Global distribution of nearshore slopes with implications for coastal retreat. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 11, 1515–1529

Barman, N. K., Chatterjee, S., & Paul, A. K. (2016). Estimate the coastal vulnerability in the Balasore Coast of India: A statistical approach. Modeling Earth Systems and Environment, 2(1), 20.

Bevacqua A, Yu D, Zhang Y. (2018). Coastal vulnerability: evolving concepts in understanding vulnerable people and places. Environ Sci Policy, 82, 19–29.

Boateng, I. (2012). GIS assessment of coastal vulnerability to climate change and coastal adaption planning in Vietnam. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 16(1), 25-36.

Contestabile P, Vicinanza D. (2020). Coastal vulnerability and mitigation strategies: from monitoring to applied research. Water, 12(9), 2594.

Demirkesen, A. C., & Evrendilek, F. (2017). Compositing climate change vulnerability of a Mediterranean region using spatiotemporally dynamic proxies for ecological and socioeconomic impacts and stabilities. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 189(1), 1-15.

Dian N. Handiani, Aida Heriati & Wina A. Gunawan (2022). Comparison of coastal vulnerability assessment for Subang Regency in North Coast West Java-Indonesia. Geomatics, Natural Hazards and Risk, 13(1), 1178-1206.

Dulal HB. (2019). Cities in Asia: how are they adapting to climate change? J Environ Stud Sci., 9(1),13–24.

Ehsan, S.; Begum, R.A.; Maulud, K.N.A. (2022). Household external vulnerability due to climate change in Selangor coast of Malaysia. Clim. Risk Manag., 35, 100408.

Elkhateeb, W.A.; Zaghlol, G.M.; El-Garawani, I.M.; Ahmed, E.F.; Rateb, M.E.; Abdel Moneim, A.E. (2018). Ganoderma applanatum secondary metabolites induced apoptosis through different pathways: In vivo and in vitro anticancer studies. Biomed. Pharmacother., 101, 264–277.

Felsenstein, D., & Lichter, M. (2014). Social and economic vulnerability of coastal communities to sea-level rise and extreme flooding. Natural hazards, 71(1), 463-491.

Glaeser B. (2019). Sustainable coastal management for social-ecological systems—A typology approach in Indonesia. Coast. Manag. 61–77.

Gornitz, V. (1990). Vulnerability of the East Coast, U.S.A. to Future Sea Level Rise. Journal of Coastal Research, (9), 201–237.

Guillard-Gonçalves, C.; Zêzere, J.L. (2018). Combining Social Vulnerability and Physical Vulnerability to Analyse Landslide Risk at the Municipal Scale. Geosciences, 8, 294.

Handiani DN, Darmawan S, Hernawati R, Suryahadi MF, Aditya YD. (2018). Coastline change and coastal ecosystem identification in Subang Regency [Identifikasi Perubahan Garis Pantai dan Ekosistem Pesisir di Kabupaten Subang]. JRG. 2017(2):61–71.

Hegde, A. V. & Reju, V. R. (2007). Development of Coastal Vulnerability Index for Mangalore Coast, India, Journal of Coastal Research, (23), 1106–1111.

Hossain, Sk A. et al. (2022). Coastal vulnerability assessment of India's Purba Medinipur-Balasore coastal stretch: A comparative study using empirical models, International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 77.

Huang, M., Xia, C., Li, Y., Zeng, C., and Zhang, B. (2022). Coupling responses of landscape pattern to human activity and their drivers in the hinterland of three gorges reservoir area. Global Ecol. Conserv., 33, e01992.

Jiang, S., Xu, N., Li, Z., and Huang, C. (2021). Satellite derived coastal reclamation expansion in China since the 21st century. Global Ecol. Conserv., 30, e01797.

Kar, S. (2018). The Study of The Vulnerability of The East Coast India. International Journal of Engineering Science Invention (IJESI), 07(07), 01-08.

Kepel TL, Heriati A, Mbay L, Ati R, Jayawiguna MH, Abida RF. 2019. Mangrove rehabilitation as coastal abrasion defenses in North Coast Java. [Rehabilitasi Mangrove sebagai Pelindung Abrasi Pantai di Pesisir Pantura Jawa]. In: Solihuddin, T., Jayawiguna, M. H., Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic [Strategi Rehabilitasi Pantura Jawa Berdasarkan Dinamika Wilayah Pesisir]. Jakarta: AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF), Indonesian. p. 53–75.

Koroglu, A., Ranasinghe, R., Jiménez, J., and Ali, D. (2019). Comparison of coastal vulnerability index applications for Barcelona province. Ocean Coast. Manag. 178, 104799.

Krampe F, Mobjork M. 2018. Responding to climate-related security risks: reviewing regional organizations in Asia and Africa. Curr Clim Change Rep. 4(4), 330–337.

Kumar, T. S., Mahendra, R. S., Nayak, S., Radhakrishnan, K., & Sahu, K. C. (May 2010). Coastal Vulnerability Assessment for Orissa State, East Coast of India, Journal of Coastal Research, 26(3), 523-534.

Kurhade, S. Y. (2013). Methodological Framework for Evaluation of Tourism Carrying Capacity of Eco Sensitive Region. International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, 2, (3), 781-786.

Lu J, Zhang Y, Shi H and Lv X (2022). Coastal vulnerability modelling and social vulnerability assessment under anthropogenic impacts. Front. Mar. Sci., 9, 1015781.

Lu, X. Q., and Zhang, J. C. (2006). Numerical study on spatially varying bottom friction coefficient of a 2D tidal model with adjoint method. Cont. Shelf Res. 26, 1905–1923.

Mahapatra, M., Ramakrishnan, R., & Rajawat, A. S. (2015). Coastal vulnerability assessment using analytical hierarchical process for South Gujarat coast, India. Natural Hazards, 76(1), 139- 159.

Mahapatra, M., Ramakrishnan, R., & Rajawat, A. S. (2015). Coastal vulnerability assessment of Gujarat coast to sea level rise using GIS techniques: a preliminary study. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 19(2), 241-256.

Mahapatra, M.; Ratheesh, R.; Rajawat, A.S. Sea level rise and coastal vulnerability assessment: A review. Int. J. Geol. Earth Environ. Sci., 3, 67–80.

Masson-Delmotte, V.; Zhai, A.; Pirani, S.L.; Connors, C.; Péan, S.; Berger, N.; Caud, Y.; Chen, L.; Goldfarb, M.I.; Gomis, M.; et al. (2022). Contribution of Working Group II to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. In Climate Change 2022: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.

Mujabar, P. S., & Chandrasekar, N. (2013). Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability assessment for southern coastal Tamil Nadu of India by using remote sensing and GIS. Natural Hazards, 69(3), 1295-1314.

Nicholls RJ, Wong PP, Burkett VR, Codignotto JO, Hay JE, McLean RF, Ragoonaden S, Woodroffe CD, Parry ML, Canziani OF, et al. (2018). Coastal systems and low-lying areas. In Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Contribution of WorkingGroup II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Nicholls, R. J., Wong, P. P., Burkett, V., Codignotto, J., Hay, J., McLean, R., ... & Saito, Y. (2007). Coastal systems and lowlying areas.

Nicholls, R. J., Wong, P. P., Burkett, V., Woodroffe, C. D., & Hay, J. (2008). Climate change and coastal vulnerability assessment: scenarios for integrated assessment. Sustainability Science, 3, 89–102.

Nidhinarangkoon, P.; Ritphring, S. Assessment of coastal vulnerability to sea level rise: A case study of Prachuap Khiri Khan, Thailand. IOP Conf. Ser. Earth Environ. Sci. 2019, 326, 012005.

Ningsih NS, Hanifah F, Tanjung TS, Yani LF, Azhar MA. (2020). The effect of tropical cyclone Nicholas (11–20 February 2008) on sea level anomalies in Indonesian Waters. JMSE. 8(11): 948.

Noor, N.M.; Abdul Maulud, K.N. (2022). Coastal Vulnerability: A Brief Review on Integrated Assessment in Southeast Asia. J. Mar. Sci. Eng., 10, 595.

Oloyede, M.O.; Williams, A.B.; Ode, G.O.; Benson, N.U. (2022). Coastal Vulnerability Assessment: A Case Study of the Nigerian Coastline. Sustainability, 14, 2097.

Pandey, R., Shukla, Dr.R.K. (April 2018). Extraction of Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Uttarkashi District (Uttrakhand, India) Using SRTM Data in Open Source QGIS, International Journal of Creative Research Thought (IJCRT), 6(2), 143-151.

Parthasarathy, K. S. S. et al. (2018). Shoreline Change Detection Using Geo-Spatial Techniques- A case Study for Cuddalore Coast”, 6th International Symposium on Advances in Civil and Environmental Engineering Practices for Sustainable Development (ACEPS), 33-39.

Paul, A. et al. (2020). Multicriteria Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability Index with the help of GIS Techniques: A Study in Digha, Shankarpur, Mandarmani and Junput Coast, India. Journal of Coastal Science, 7(2), 1-13.

Purbani D, Salim HL, Marzuki MI, Abida RF, Tussadiah, A, Triyono. (2019). Abrasion and accretion in the last decades case study: Serang, Indramayu, Brebes, Demak, and Gresik Districts [Laju Abrasi dan Akresi Pantura Jawa dalam Satu Dekade Terakhir Studi Kasus: Kabupaten Serang, Indramayu, Brebes, Demak, dan Gresik]. In: Solihuddin, T., Jayawiguna, M. H., Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic [Strategi Rehabilitasi Pantura Jawa Berdasarkan Dinamika Wilayah Pesisir]. Jakarta: AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF), Indonesian. p. 37–51.

Rudiarto I, Handayani W, Sih Setyono J, Jawoto Sih Setyono (2018). A regional perspective on urbanization and climate-related disasters in the Northern Coastal Region of Central Java, Indonesia. Land. 7(1), 34.

Schmitt, R.; Rubin, Z.; (Kondolf, G. 2017). Losing ground—scenarios of land loss as consequence of shifting sediment budgets in the Mekong Delta. Geomorphology, 294, 58–69.

Solihuddin T, Dhiadudin R, Mustikasari E, Rahayu YP, Husrin S. (2019). North Coast Java rehabilitation: issues, analysis, and challenges [Rehabilitasi Pantura Jawa: Isu, Analisis dan Tantangan]. In: Solihuddin, T., Jayawiguna, M. H., Triyono, editors. North Coast Java strategies based on coastal zone dynamic [Strategi Rehabilitasi Pantura Jawa Berdasarkan Dinamika Wilayah Pesisir]. Jakarta: AMAFRAD Press, Marine Research Center, Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Affairs Republic of Indonesia (MoMAF). 9–35.

Thomas V, Lopez R. (2015). Global Increase in Climate-Related Disasters. No. 466. ADB economics working paper series. Manila, Philippine: Asian Development Bank. 1–45.

Wang, C., Cai, L., Wu, Y., and Ouyang, Y. (2021). Numerical simulation of the impact of an integrated renovation project on the maowei Sea hydrodynamic environment. Sci. Rep. 11, 17059.

Willemsen P, van der Lelij AC, van Wesenbeeck B. (2019). Risk assessment North Coast Java. Deltares, Report Project No. 1220476-002-ZKS-0007. p. 1–25.

Yadav, A. B. et al. (2022). Coastal Vulnerability Assessment: A case study of the Ratnagiri coast, Maharashtra, India; Earth and Environmental Science, IOP Publishing, 1-9.

Yoo G, Kim AR, Hadi S. 2014. A methodology to assess environmental vulnerability in a coastal city: application to Jakarta, Indonesia. Ocean Coast Manage. 102:169–177.

Zikra M, Suntoyo L. 2015. Climate change impacts on Indonesian coastal areas. Procedia Earth Planetary Sci., 14, 57–63.



How to Cite

Dey, N. ., & Das, P. . (2023). Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Kanthi Coast, India by the Geospatial Technology. Indonesian Journal of Social and Environmental Issues (IJSEI), 4(3), 221-241.