Effect of Heavy Metals Emissions on Ecosystem of Pakistan
Keywords:Air Pollution, Heavy Metals, Soil Pollution, Water Pollution
Environmental contamination is one of the significant problems of modern society. Heavy metal pollutants include zinc, arsenic, nickel, cadmium, copper, lead, chromium, manganese, and iron etc. Their universal bioavailability accumulation in the food chain causes severe effects on human health. The lives of living species will be preserved by unique heavy metal treatments to improve the air, soil, and water quality. This review article represents a glimpse of heavy metal contamination in several areas of Pakistan over the past few years, that assess the heavy metal especially the contamination in water (groundwater, surface water, and wastewater), soil, and particulate matter. The listed pollution affects the quality of drinking water, the ecological environment, and the food chain. The toxicity induced by contaminated water, soil, and air causes a genuine threat to human health. Moreover, the technologies to overcome this problem have also been reported in it.
Aziz, J. (2005). Management of source and drinking-water quality in Pakistan. EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, 11 (5-6), 1087-1098, 2005.
Azizullah, A., Khattak, M. N. K., Richter, P., &Häder, D.-P. (2011). Water pollution in Pakistan and its impact on public health—a review. Environment international, 37 (2), 479-497.
Buzzi, D. C., Viegas, L. S., Rodrigues, M. A. S., Bernardes, A. M., &Tenório, J. A. S. (2013). Water recovery from acid mine drainage by electrodialysis. Minerals Engineering, 40, 82-89.
Cachada, A., Rocha-Santos, T., & Duarte, A. C. (2018). Soil and pollution: an introduction to the main issues Soil pollution (pp. 1-28): Elsevier.
Chabbi, I., Baati, H., Dammak, R., Bahloul, M., &Azri, C. (2020). Toxic metal pollution and ecological risk assessment in superficial soils of “rural-agricultural and coastal-urban” of Monastir region, Eastern Tunisia. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 1-20.
Dermont, G., Bergeron, M., Mercier, G., & Richer-Laflèche, M. (2008). Soil washing for metal removal: a review of physical/chemical technologies and field applications. Journal of hazardous materials, 152 (1), 1-31.
Duruibe, J. O., Ogwuegbu, M., &Egwurugwu, J. (2007). Heavy metal pollution and human biotoxic effects. International Journal of physical sciences, 2 (5), 112-118.
El-Shahawi, M., Hamza, A., Bashammakh, A., & Al-Saggaf, W. (2010). An overview on the accumulation, distribution, transformations, toxicity and analytical methods for the monitoring of persistent organic pollutants. Talanta, 80 (5), 1587-1597.
Fasihi, M., Efimova, O., &Breyer, C. (2019). Techno-economic assessment of CO2 direct air capture plants. Journal of cleaner production, 224, 957-980.
Gambhir, A., &Tavoni, M. (2019). Direct Air Carbon Capture and Sequestration: How It Works and How It Could Contribute to Climate-Change Mitigation. One Earth, 1 (4), 405-409.
Hasanbeigi, A., Lu, H., Williams, C., & Price, L. (2012). International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry: Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United ….
Hasnie, F., & Qureshi, N. (2002). Quantification of pollution load in wastewater channels of village Rehri draining in to Korangi Creek. Pakistan Steel Research Journal, 3, 47-54.
He, Z. L., Yang, X. E., &Stoffella, P. J. (2005). Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment. Journal of Trace elements in Medicine and Biology, 19 (2-3), 125-140.
Herawati, N., Suzuki, S., Hayashi, K., Rivai, I., & Koyama, H. (2000). Cadmium, copper, and zinc levels in rice and soil of Japan, Indonesia, and China by soil type. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 64 (1), 33-39.
Hill, M. K. (2020). Understanding environmental pollution: Cambridge University Press.
Iqbal, A. R. (2010). Water Shortage in Pakistan-A Crisis around the Corner. ISSRA Papers, 2 (2), 1-13.
Johnston, E. L., & Keough, M. J. (2005). Reduction of pollution impacts through the control of toxicant release rate must be site- and season-specific. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, 320 (1), 9-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.12.024
Karim, Z., Qureshi, B. A., & Mumtaz, M. (2015). Geochemical baseline determination and pollution assessment of heavy metals in urban soils of Karachi, Pakistan. Ecological Indicators, 48, 358-364.
Kazi, T. G., Jamali, M. K., Siddiqui, A., Kazi, G., Arain, M., & Afridi, H. (2006). An ultrasonic assisted extraction method to release heavy metals from untreated sewage sludge samples. Chemosphere, 63 (3), 411-420.
Koehlmoos, T. P., Anwar, S., &Cravioto, A. (2011). Global health: chronic diseases and other emergent issues in global health. Infectious Disease Clinics, 25 (3), 623-638.
Lee, G., Bigham, J. M., & Faure, G. (2002). Removal of trace metals by coprecipitation with Fe, Al and Mn from natural waters contaminated with acid mine drainage in the Ducktown Mining District, Tennessee. Applied Geochemistry, 17 (5), 569-581.
Lei, Y., Zhang, Q., Nielsen, C., & He, K. (2011). An inventory of primary air pollutants and CO2 emissions from cement production in China, 1990–2020. Atmospheric Environment, 45 (1), 147-154.
Malik, R. N., & Zeb, N. (2009). Assessment of environmental contamination using feathers of Bubulcus ibis L., as a biomonitor of heavy metal pollution, Pakistan. Ecotoxicology, 18 (5), 522-536.
Manzoor, S., Shah, M., Shaheen, N., Tariq, S., Khaliq, A., & Jaffar, M. (2004). Distribution of Heavy Toxic Metals in Industrial Effluents and Relevant Soils. Jour. Chem. Soc. Pak. Vol, 26 (4), 429.
Martınez, C., & Motto, H. (2000). Solubility of lead, zinc and copper added to mineral soils. Environmental pollution, 107 (1), 153-158.
Mirhashemi, S. M., &Shahabaddin, M.-E. (2011). Evaluation of aluminium, manganese, copper and selenium effects on human islets amyloid polypeptide hormone aggregation. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14 (4), 288.
Musilova, J., Arvay, J., Vollmannova, A., Toth, T., & Tomas, J. (2016). Environmental contamination by heavy metals in region with previous mining activity. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology, 97 (4), 569-575.
Neoh, C. H., Noor, Z. Z., Mutamim, N. S. A., & Lim, C. K. (2016). Green technology in wastewater treatment technologies: integration of membrane bioreactor with various wastewater treatment systems. Chemical engineering journal, 283, 582-594.
Nidheesh, P., & Kumar, M. S. (2019). An overview of environmental sustainability in cement and steel production. Journal of cleaner production, 231, 856-871.
Nishitani, K., Kaneko, S., Fujii, H., & Komatsu, S. (2011). Effects of the reduction of pollution emissions on the economic performance of firms: an empirical analysis focusing on demand and productivity. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19 (17-18), 1956-1964.
Nleya, Y., Simate, G. S., & Ndlovu, S. (2016). Sustainability assessment of the recovery and utilisation of acid from acid mine drainage. Journal of Cleaner Production, 113, 17-27.
Pestemer, W., &Strumpf, T. (2003). Occurance, importance and legal regulations of heavy metals in urban stands-an overview. Paper presented at the Second International Symposium on plant health in urban horticulture, Berlin, Germany, 27-29 August, 2003.
Poulsen, H. D. (1998). Zinc and copper as feed additives, growth factors or unwanted environmental factors. J. Anim. Feed Sci, 7 (suppl 1), 135-142.
Rai, L., Gaur, J., & Kumar, H. (1981). Phycology and heavy‐metal pollution. Biological Reviews, 56 (2), 99-151.
Riaz, M. A., Tabinda Akhtar, A. B., Riaz, A., Mujtaba, G., Ali, M., & Ijaz, B. (2017). Heavy metals identification and exposure at workplace environment its extent of accumulation in blood of iron and steel recycling foundry workers of Lahore, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 30 (4).
Saifullah, S., Khan, S., & Ismail, S. (2002). Distribution of nickel in a polluted mangrove habitat of the Indus Delta. Marine pollution bulletin, 44 (6), 570-576.
Salomons, W. (1995). Long-term strategies for handling contaminated sites and large-scale areas Biogeodynamics of pollutants in soils and sediments (pp. 1-30): Springer.
Sarkar, B. (2002). Heavy metals in the environment: CRC press.
Sial Sr, R. A. (2006). Quality of Effluents from Hattar Industrial Area Pakistan.
Silvas, F. P. C., Buzzi, D. C., Espinosa, D. C. R., &Tenório, J. A. S. (2011). Biosorption of AMD metals using Rhodococcusopacus. Rem: Revista Escola de Minas, 64 (4), 487-492.
Simoneit, B. R. (2002). Biomass burning—a review of organic tracers for smoke from incomplete combustion. Applied Geochemistry, 17 (3), 129-162.
Singh, R., Gautam, N., Mishra, A., & Gupta, R. (2011). Heavy metals and living systems: An overview. Indian journal of pharmacology, 43 (3), 246.
Socolow, R., Desmond, M., Aines, R., Blackstock, J., Bolland, O., Kaarsberg, T., . . . Sawyer, K. (2011). Direct air capture of CO2 with chemicals: a technology assessment for the APS Panel on Public Affairs: American Physical Society.
Soleimani, M., Amini, N., Sadeghian, B., Wang, D., & Fang, L. (2018). Heavy metals and their source identification in particulate matter (PM2. 5) in Isfahan City, Iran. Journal of environmental sciences, 72, 166-175.
Tahir, M., Rasheed, H., & Imran, S. (2010). Water Quality Status in Rural Areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources, Islamabad, Pakistan: Report.
Tahir, M. A., Rasheed, H., & Imran, S. (2010). Water quality status in rural areas of Pakistan: Pakistan Council of Research in Water Resources.
Tyler, G. (1972). Heavy metals pollute nature, may reduce productivity. Ambio, 1 (2), 52-59.
Van Ael, E., Covaci, A., Blust, R., &Bervoets, L. (2012). Persistent organic pollutants in the Scheldt estuary: environmental distribution and bioaccumulation. Environment International, 48, 17-27.
von Schneidemesser, E., Stone, E. A., Quraishi, T. A., Shafer, M. M., & Schauer, J. J. (2010). Toxic metals in the atmosphere in Lahore, Pakistan. Science of the Total Environment, 408 (7), 1640-1648.
Waseem, A., Arshad, J., Iqbal, F., Sajjad, A., Mehmood, Z., & Murtaza, G. (2014). Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables. BioMed research international, 2014.
Wong, M. H. (2012). Environmental contamination: Health risks and ecological restoration: CRC Press.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Asif, Bushra Sharf, Saqaina Anwar
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.